정상치 자세히(Normal Lab Values Detailed)

Normal Laboratory Values

Reference range values are for apparently healthy individuals and often overlap significantly with values for persons who are sick. Actual values may vary significantly due to differences in assay methodologies and standardization. Institutions may also set up their own reference ranges based on the particular populations that they serve, thus there can be regional differences. Consequently, values reported by individual laboratories may differ from those listed here.

All values are given in conventional and SI units. However, where the SI units have not been widely accepted, conventional units are used. In case of the heterogeneous nature of the materials or uncertainty of the exact weight of the compounds, the SI system cannot be followed, and mass per volume is used as the unit of concentration.

Abbreviations: ACD, acid-citrate-dextrose; CHF, congestive heart failure; Cit, citrate; CNS, central nervous system; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Hep, heparin; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Ox, oxalate; RBC, red blood cell(s); RIA, radioimmunoassay; SD, standard deviation.

Tests Conventional Units SI Units
Acetaminophen, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic 10–30 µg/mL 66–199 µmol/L
    Toxic > 200 µg/mL > 1324 µmol/L
Acetone
    Serum
        Qualitative Negative Negative
        Quantitative 0.3–2.0 mg/dL 0.05–0.34 mmol/L
    Urine
        Qualitative Negative Negative
Acid hemolysis test (Ham) < 5% lysis < 0.05 lysed fraction
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), plasma
    8 A.M. < 120 pg/mL < 26 pmol/L
    Midnight (supine) < 10 pg/mL < 2.2 pmol/L
*Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), serum
    Male 13–40 U/L (37°C) 0.22–0.68 µkat/L (37°C)
    Female 10–28 U/L (37°C) 0.17–0.48 µkat/L (37°C)
Albumin
    Serum
        Adult 3.5–5.2 g/dL 35–52 g/L
        > 60 y 3.2–4.6 g/dL 32–46 g/L
Avg. of 0.3 g/dL higher in upright individuals Avg. of 3 g/L higher in upright individuals
    Urine
        Qualitative Negative Negative
        Quantitative 50–80 mg/24 h 50–80 mg/24 h
    CSF 10–30 mg/dL 100–300 mg/L
*Aldolase, serum 1.0–7.5 U/L (30°C) 0.02–0.13 µkat/L (30°C)
Aldosterone
    Serum
        Supine 3–16 ng/dL 0.08–0.44 nmol/L
        Standing 7–30 ng/dL 0.19–0.83 nmol/L
    Urine 3–19 µg/24 h 8–51 nmol/24 h
Amikacin, serum or plasma (EDTA)
    Therapeutic
        Peak 25–35 µg/mL 43–60 µmol/L
        Trough
            Less severe infection 1–4 µg/mL 1.7–6.8 µmol/L
            Life-threatening infection 4–8 µg/mL 6.8–13.7 µmol/L
    Toxic
        Peak > 35–40 µg/mL > 60–68 µmol/L
        Trough > 10–15 µg/mL > 17–26 µmol/L
d-Aminolevulinic acid, urine 1.3–7.0 mg/24 h 10–53 µmol/24 h
Amitriptyline, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough (³ 12 h after dose)
    Therapeutic 80–250 ng/mL 289–903 nmol/L
    Toxic > 500 ng/mL > 1805 nmol/L
Ammonia
    Plasma (Hep) 9–33 µmol/L 9–33 µmol/L
*Amylase
    Serum 27–131 U/L 0.46–2.23 µkat/L
    Urine 1–17 U/h 0.017–0.29 µkat/h
Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio 1–4% 0.01–0.04
Androstenedione, serum
    Male 75–205 ng/dL 2.6–7.2 nmol/L
    Female 85–275 ng/dL 3.0–9.6 nmol/L
Anion gap
    (Na - (Cl + HCO3)) 7–16 mEq/L 7–16 mmol/L
    ((Na + K) - (Cl + HCO3)) 10–20 mEq/L 10–20 mmol/L
a1-Antitrypsin, serum 78–200 mg/dL 0.78–2.00 g/L
Apolipoprotein A-I
    Male 94–178 mg/dL 0.94–1.78 g/L
    Female 101–199 mg/dL 1.01–1.99 g/L
Apolipoprotein B
    Male 63–133 mg/dL 0.63–1.33 g/L
    Female 60–126 mg/dL 0.60–1.26 g/L
Arsenic
    Whole blood (Hep) 0.2–2.3 µg/dL 0.03–0.31 µmol/L
        Chronic poisoning 10–50 µg/dL 1.33–6.65 µmol/L
        Acute poisoning 60–930 µg/dL 7.98–124 µmol/L
    Urine, 24 h 5–50 µg/d 0.07–0.67 µmol/d
Ascorbic acid, plasma (Ox, Hep, EDTA) 0.4–1.5 mg/dL 23–85 µmol/L
*Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), serum 10–59 U/L (37°C) 0.17–1.00 -2 to +3 kat/L (37°C)
Base excess, blood (Hep) -2 to +3 mEq/L -2 to +3 mmol/L
Bicarbonate, serum (venous) 22–29 mEq/L 22–29 mmol/L
*Bilirubin
    Serum
        Adult
            Conjugated 0.03–0.3 mg/dL 0–5 µmol/L
            Unconjugated 0.1–1.1 mg/dL 1.7–19 µmol/L
            Delta 0–0.2 mg/dL 0–3 µmol/L
            Total 0.2–1.3 mg/L 3–22 µmol/L
        Neonates
            Conjugated 0–0.6 mg/dL 0–10 µmol/L
            Unconjugated 0.6–10.5 mg/dL 10–180 µmol/L
            Total 1.5–12 mg/dL 1.7–180 µmol/L
    Urine, qualitative Negative Negative
Bone marrow, differential cell count
    Adult
        Undifferentiated cells 0–1% 0–0.01
        Myeloblast 0–2% 0–0.02
        Promyelocyte 0–4% 0–0.04
        Myelocytes
            Neutrophilic 5–20% 0.05–0.20
            Eosinophilic 0–3% 0–0.03
            Basophilic 0–1% 0–0.01
        Metamyelocytes and bands
            Neutrophilic 5–35% 0.05–0.35
            Eosinophilic 0–5% 0–0.05
            Basophilic 0–1% 0–0.01
        Segmented neutrophils 5–15% 0.05–0.15
        Pronormoblast 0–1.5% 0–0.015
        Basophilic normoblast 0–5% 0–0.05
        Polychromatophilic normoblast 5–30% 0.05–0.30
        Orthochromatic normoblast 5–10% 0.05–0.10
        Lymphocytes 10–20% 0.10–0.20
        Plasma cells 0–2% 0–0.02
        Monocytes 0–5% 0–0.05
CA 125, serum < 35 U/mL < 35 kU/L
CA 15-3, serum < 30 U/mL < 30 kU/L
CA 19-9, serum < 37 U/mL < 37 kU/L
Cadmium, whole blood (Hep) 0.1–0.5 µg/dL 8.9–44.5 nmol/L
    Toxic 10–300 µg/dL 0.89–26.70 µmol/L
Cadmium, urine, 24 h < 15 µg/d < 0.13 µmol/d
Calcitonin, serum or plasma (Hep, EDTA)
    Male £ 100 pg/mL £ 100 ng/L
    Female £ 30 pg/mL £ 30 ng/L
Calcium, serum 8.6–10.0 mg/dL 2.15–2.50 mmol/L
(Slightly higher in children) (Slightly higher in children)
Calcium, ionized, serum 4.64–5.28 mg/dL 1.16–1.32 mmol/L
Calcium, urine
    Low calcium diet 50–150 mg/24 h 1.25–3.75 mmol/24 h
    Usual diet; trough 100–300 mg/24 h 2.50–7.50 mmol/24 h
Carbamazepine, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA), trough
    Therapeutic 4–12 µg/mL 17–51 µmol/L
    Toxic > 15 µg/mL > 63 µmol/L
Carbon dioxide, total, serum/plasma (Hep) 22–28 mmol/L Same
Carbon dioxide (PCO2, blood, arterial Male 35–48 mm Hg
4.66–6.38 kPa
Female 32–45 mm Hg 4.26–5.99 kPa
Carbon monoxide as carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), whole blood (EDTA)
    Nonsmokers 0.5–1.5% total Hb 0.005–0.015 HbCO fraction
    Smokers
        1–2 packs/d 4–5% total Hb 0.04–0.05 HbCO fraction
        > 2 packs/d 8–9% total Hb 0.08–0.09 HbCO fraction
    Toxic > 20% total Hb > 0.20 HbCO fraction
    Lethal > 50% total Hb > 0.5 HbCO fraction
Carotene, serum 10–85 µg/dL 0.19–1.58 µmol/L
Catecholamines, plasma (EDTA)
    Dopamine < 30 pg/mL < 196 pmol/L
    Epinephrine < 140 pg/mL < 764 pmol/L
    Norepinephrine < 1700 pg/mL < 10,047 pmol/L
Catecholamines, urine
    Dopamine 65–400 µg/24 h 425–2610 nmol/24 h
    Epinephrine 0–20 µg/24 h 0–109 nmol/24 h
    Norepinephrine 15–80 µg/24 h 89–473 nmol/24 h
CEA, serum
    Nonsmokers < 5.0 ng/mL < 5.0 µg/L
*Cell counts, adult
    RBC Male 4.7–6.1 × 106/µL 4.7–6.1 × 1012/L
    RBC Female 4.2–5.4 × 106/µL 4.2–5.4 × 1012/L
    Leukocytes
        Total 4.8–10.8 × 103/µL 4.8–10.8 × 106/L
        Differential Percentage            Absolute Absolute (SI)
            Myelocytes 0%            0/µL 0/L
            Neutrophils
                Band 3–5%            150–400/µL 150–400 × 106/L
                Segmented 54–62%            3000–5800/µL 3000–5800 × 106/L
            Lymphocytes 20.5–51.1%            1.2–3.4 × 103/µL 1.2–3.4 × 109/L
            Monocytes 1.7–9.3%            0.11–0.59 × 103/µL 0.11–0.59 × 109/L
            Granulocytes 42.2–75.2%            1.4–6.5 × 103/µL 1.4–6.5 × 109/L
            Eosinophils             0–0.07 × 103/µL 0–0.7 × 109/L
            Basophils             0–0.2 × 103/µL 0–0.2 × 109/L
    Platelets 130–400 × 103/µL 130–400 × 109/L
    Reticulocytes 0.5–1.5% red cells 0.005–0.015 of RBC
24,000–84,000/µL 24–84 × 109/L
Cells, CSF 0–10 lymphocytes/mm3 Same
0 RBC/mm3 Same
Ceruloplasmin, serum 20–60 mg/dL 0.2–0.6 g/L
Chloramphenicol, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 10–25 µg/mL 31–77 µmol/L
    Toxic > 25 µg/mL > 77 µmol/L
Chloride
    Serum or plasma (Hep) 98–107 mmol/L 98–107 mmol/L
    Sweat
        Normal 5–35 mmol/L Same
        Cystic fibrosis 60–200 mmol/L Same
    Urine, 24 h (vary greatly with Cl intake)
        Infant 2–10 mmol/24 h Same
        Child 15–40 mmol/24 h Same
        Adult 110–250 mmol/24 h Same
    CSF 118–132 mmol/L (20 mmol/L higher than serum) Same
Cholesterol, serum
    Adult desirable: < 200 mg/dL desirable: < 5.2 mmol/L
borderline: 200–239 mg/dL borderline: 5.2–6.2 mmol/L
high risk: ³ 240 mg/dL high risk: ³ 6.2 mmol/L
*Cholinesterase, serum 4.9–11.9 U/mL 4.9–11.9 kU/L
    Dibucaine inhibition 79–84% 0.79–0.84
    Fluoride inhibition 58–64% 0.58–0.64
*Chorionic gonadotropin, intact
    Serum or plasma (EDTA)
        Male and nonpregnant female < 5.0 mIU/mL < 5.0 IU/L
        Pregnant female Varies with gestational age
    Urine, qualitative
        Male and nonpregnant female Negative Negative
        Pregnant female Positive Positive
Clonazepam, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 15–60 ng/mL 48–190 nmol/L
    Toxic > 80 ng/mL > 254 nmol/L
Coagulation tests
    Antithrombin III (synthetic substrate) 80–120% of normal 0.8–1.2 of normal
    Bleeding time (Duke) 0–6 min 0–6 min
    Bleeding time (Ivy) 1–6 min 1–6 min
    Bleeding time (template) 2.3–9.5 min 2.3–9.5 min
    Clot retraction, qualitative 50–100% in 2 h 0.5–1.0/2 h
Coagulation time (Lee-White) 5–15 min (glass tubes)
19–60 min (siliconized tubes)
5–15 min (glass tubes)
19–60 min (siliconized tubes)
Cold hemolysin test (Donath-Landsteiner) No hemolysis No hemolysis
Complement components
    Total hemolytic complement activity, plasma (EDTA) 75–160 U/mL 75–160 kU/L
    Total complement decay rate (functional), plasma (EDTA) 10–20%
Deficiency: > 50%
Fraction decay rate:
0.10–0.20
> 0.50
    C1q, serum 14.9–22.1 mg/dL 149–221 mg/L
    C1r, serum 2.5–10.0 mg/dL 25–100 mg/L
    C1s(C2 esterase), serum 5.0–10.0 mg/dL 50–100 mg/L
    C2, serum 1.6–3.6 mg/dL 16–36 mg/L
    C3, serum 90–180 mg/dL 0.9–1.8 g/L
    C4, serum 10–40 mg/dL 0.1–0.4 g/L
    C5, serum 5.5–11.3 mg/dL 55–113 mg/L
    C6, serum 17.9–23.9 mg/dL 179–239 mg/L
    C7, serum 2.7–7.4 mg/dL 27–74 mg/L
    C8, serum 4.9–10.6 mg/dL 49–106 mg/L
    C9, serum 3.3–9.5 mg/dL 33–95 mg/L
Coombs' test
    Direct Negative Negative
    Indirect Negative Negative
Copper
    Serum
        Male 70–140 µg/dL 11–22 µmol/L
        Female 80–155 µg/dL 13–24 µmol/L
    Urine 3–35 µg/24 h 0.05–0.55 µmol/24 h
Corpuscular values of erthrocytes (values are for adults; in children, values vary with age)
    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 27–31 pg 0.42–0.48 fmol
    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 33–37 g/dL 330–370 g/L
    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Male: 80–94 µ3
Male: 80–94 fL
Female: 81–99 µ3 Female: 81–99 fL
Cortisol, serum
    Plasma (Hep, EDTA, Ox)
        8 A.M. 5–23 µg/dL 138–635 nmol/L
        4 P.M. 3–16 µg/dL 83–441 nmol/L
        10 P.M. < 50% of 8 A.M. value < 0.5 of 8 A.M. value
    Free, urine < 50 µg/24 h < 138 mmol/24 h
*Creatine kinase (CK), serum
    Male 15–105 U/L (30°C) 0.26–1.79 µkat/L (30°C)
    Female 10–80 U/L (30°C) 0.17–1.36 µkat/L (30°C)
    Note: Strenuous exercise or intramuscular injections may cause transient elevation of CK.
*Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme, serum 0–7 ng/mL 0–7 µg/L
*Creatinine
    Serum or plasma, adult
        Male 0.7–1.3 mg/dL 62–115 µmol/L
        Female 0.6–1.1 mg/dL 53–97 µmol/L
    Urine
        Male 14–26 mg/kg body weight/24 h 124–230 µmol/kg body weight/24 h
        Female 11–20 mg/kg body weight/24 h 97–177 µmol/kg body weight/24 h
*Creatinine clearance, sum or plasma and urine
    Male 94–140 mL/min/1.73 m2 0.91–1.35 mL/s/m2
    Female 72–110 mL/min/1.73 m2 0.69–1.06 mL/s/m2
Cryoglobulins, serum 0 0
Cyanide
    Serum
        Nonsmokers 0.004 mg/L 0.15 µmol/L
        Smokers 0.006 mg/L 0.23 µmol/L
        Nitroprusside therapy 0.01–0.06 mg/L 0.38–2.30 µmol/L
        Toxic > 0.1 mg/L > 3.84 µmol/L
    Whole blood (Ox)
        Nonsmokers 0.016 mg/L 0.61 µmol/L
        Smokers 0.041 mg/L 1.57 µmol/L
        Nitroprusside therapy 0.05–0.5 mg/L 1.92–19.20 µmol/L
        Toxic > 1 mg/L > 38.40 µmol/L
Cyclic AMP
    Plasma (EDTA)
        Male 4.6–8.6 nl/mL 14–26 nmol/L
        Female 4.3–7.6 ng/mL 13–23 nmol/L
    Urine, 24 h 0.3–3.6 mg/d or
1.0–10.9 µmol/d or
0.29–2.1 mg/g creatinine 100–723 µmol/mol creatinine
Cystine or cysteine, urine, qualitative Negative Negative
*C-Peptide, serum 0.78–1.89 ng/mL 0.26–0.62 nmol/L
C-Reactive protein, serum < 0.5 mg/dL < 5 mg/L
*¹Cyclosporine, whole blood
    Therapeutic, trough 100–200 ng/mL 83–166 nmol/L
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), serum
    Male 180–1250 ng/dL 6.2–43.3 nmol/L
    Female 130–980 ng/dL 4.5–34.0 nmol/L
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), serum or plasma (Hep, EDTA)
    Male 59–452 µg/mL 1.6–12.2 µmol/L
    Female
        Premenopausal 12–379 µg/mL 0.8–10.2 µmol/L
        Postmenopausal 30–260 µg/mL 0.8–7.1 µmol/L
Desipramine, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough (12 h after dose)
    Therapeutic 75–300 ng/mL 281–1125 nmol/L
    Toxic > 400 ng/mL >1500 nmol/L
Diazepam, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 100–1000 ng/mL 0.35–3.51 µmol/L
    Toxic > 5000 ng/mL > 17.55 µmol/L
Digitoxin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); 7.8 h after dose
    Therapeutic 20–35 ng/mL 26–46 nmol/L
    Toxic > 45 ng/mL > 59 nmol/L
Digoxin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); ³ 12 h after dose
    Therapeutic
        CHF 0.8–1.5 ng/mL 1.0–1.9 nmol/L
        Arrhythmias 1.5–2.0 ng/mL 1.9–2.6 nmol/L
    Toxic
        Adult > 2.5 ng/mL > 3.2 nmol/L
        Child > 3.0 ng/mL > 3.8 nmol/L
Disopyramide, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic arrhythmias
        Atrial 2.8–3.2 µg/mL 8.3–9.4 µmol/L
        Ventricular 3.3–7.5 µg/mL 9.7–22 µmol/L
    Toxic > 7 µg/mL > 20.7 µmol/L
Doxepin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough (³ 12 h after dose)
    Therapeutic 150–250 ng/mL 537–895 nmol/L
    Toxic > 500 ng/mL > 1790 nmol/L
*Estradiol, serum
    Adult
        Male 10–50 pg/mL 37–184 pmol/L
        Female Varies with menstrual cycle
Ethanol, whole blood (Ox) or serum
    Depression of CNS > 100 mg/dL > 21.7 mmol/L
    Fatalities reported > 400 mg/dL > 86.8 mmol/L
Ethosuximide, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 40–100 µg/mL 283–708 µmol/L
    Toxic > 150 µg/mL > 1062 µmol/L
Euglobin lysis No lysis in 2 h No lysis in 2 h
a-Fetoprotein (AFP), serum < 15 ng/mL < 15 µg/L
Fat, fecal, F, 72 h
    Infant, breast-fed < 1 g/d Same
    0–6 y < 2 g/d Same
    Adult < 7 g/d Same
    Adult (fat-free diet) < 4 g/d Same
§Fatty acids, total, serum 190–420 mg/dL 7–15 mmol/L
    Nonesterified, serum 8–25 mg/dL 0.28–0.89 mmol/L
Ferritin, serum
    Male 20–250 ng/mL 20–250 µg/L
    Female 10–120 ng/mL 10–120 µg/L
    Ferritin values of < 20 ng/mL (20 µg/L) have been reported to be generally associated with depleted iron stores
Fribrin degradation products < 10 µg/mL < 10 mg/L
*Fibrinogen, plasma (NaCit) 200–400 mg/dL 2–4 g/L
Fluoride
    Plasma (Hep) 0.01–0.2 µg/mL 0.5–10.5 µmol/L
    Urine 0.2–3.2 µg/mL 10.5–168 µmol/L
    Urine, occupational exposure < 8 µg/mL < 421 µmol/L
*Folate
    Serum
3–20 ng/mL
7–45 nmol/L
    Erythrocytes 140–628 ng/mL RBC 317–1422 nmol/L RBC
*Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), serum and plasma (Hep)
    Male 1.4–15.4 mIU/mL 1.4–15.4 IU/L
    Female
        Follicular phase 1–10 mIU/mL 1–10 IU/L
        Mid-cycle 6–17 mIU/mL 6–17 IU/L
        Luteal phase 1–9 mIU/mL 1–9 IU/L
        Postmenopausal 19–100 mIU/mL 19–100 IU/L
*Free thyroxine index (FTI), serum 4.2–13 Same
Gastrin, serum < 100 pg/mL < 100 ng/L
Gentamicin, serum or plasma (EDTA)
    Therapeutic
        Peak
            Less severe infection 5–8 µg/mL 10.4–16.7 µmol/L
            Severe infection 8–10 µg/mL 16.7–20.9 µmol/L
        Trough
            Less severe infection < 1 µg/mL < 2.1 µmol/L
            Moderate infection < 2 µg/mL < 4.2 µmol/L
            Severe infection < 2–4 µg/mL < 4.2–8.4 µmol/L
    Toxic
        Peak > 10–12 µg/mL > 21–25 µmol/L
        Trough > 2–4 µg/mL > 4.2–8.4 µmol/L
Glucose (fasting)
    Blood 65–95 mg/dL 3.5–5.3 mmol/L
    Plasma or serum 74–106 mg/dL 4.1–5.9 mmol/L
Glucose, 2 h postprandial, serum < 120 mg/dL < 6.7 mmol/L
Glucose, urine
    Quantitative < 500 mg/24 h < 2.8 mmol/24 h
    Qualitative Negative Negative
Glucose, CSF 40–70 mg/dL 2.2–3.9 mmol/L
*Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in erythrocytes, whole blood (ACD, EDTA, or Hep) 12.1 ± 2.1 U/g Hb (SD)
0.78 ± 0.13 mU/mol Hb
351 ± 60.6 U/1012 RBC
0.35 ± 0.06 nU/RBC
4.11 ± 0.71 U/mL RBC 4.11 ± 0.71 kU/L RBC
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum
    Male 2–30 U/L (37°C) 0.03–0.51 µkat/L (37°C)
    Female 1–24 U/L (37°C) 0.02–0.41 µkat/L (37°C)
Glutethimide, serum
    Therapeutic 2–6 µg/mL 9–28 µmol/L
    Toxic > 5 µg/mL > 23 µmol/L
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c), whole blood (EDTA) 4.2%–5.9% 0.042–0.059
Growth hormone, serum
    Male < 5 ng/mL < 5 µg/L
    Female < 10 ng/mL < 10 µg/L
Haptoglobin, serum 30–200 mg/dL 0.3–2.0g/L
HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), serum or plasma (EDTA)
    Adult Desirable: > 40 mg/dL Desirable: > 1.04 mmol/L
Borderline: 35–40 mg/dL Borderline: 0.78–1.04 mmol/L
High risk: < 35 mg/dL High risk: < 0.78 mmol/L
Hematocrit
    Male 42–52% 0.42–0.52
    Female 37–47% 0.37–0.47
    Newborn 53–65% 0.53–0.65
    Children (varies with age) 30–43% 0.30–0.43
Hemoglobin (Hb)
    Male 14.0–18.0 g/dL 2.17–2.79 mmol/L
    Female 12.0–16.0 g/dL 1.86–2.48 mmol/L
    Newborn 17.0–23.0 g/dL 2.64–3.57 mmol/L
    Children (varies with age) 11.2–16.5 g/dL 1.74–2.56 mmol/L
Hemoglobin, fetal ³ 1 y old: < 2% of total Hb ³ 1 y old: < 0.02% of total Hb
Hemoglobin, plasma < 3 mg/dL < 0.47 µmol/L
Hemoglobin and myoglobin, urine, qualitative Negative Negative
Hemoglobin electrophoresis, whole blood (EDTA, Cit or Hep)
    HbA > 95% > 0.95 Hb fraction
    HbA2 1.5–3.7% 0.015–0.037 Hb fraction
    HbF < 2% < 0.02 Hb fraction
Homogentisic acid, urine, qualitative Negative Negative
b-Hydroxybutyric acid, serum, plasma 0.21–2.81 mg/dL 20–270 µmol/L
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids
    Urine
        Male 3–10 mg/24 h 8.3–27.6 µmol/24 h (as cortisol)
        Female 2–8 mg/24 h 5.5–22 µmol/24 h (as cortisol)
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, urine
    Qualitative Negative Negative
    Quantitative 2–7 mg/24 h 10.4–36.6 µmol/24 h
Imipramine, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough (³ 12 h after dose)
    Therapeutic 150–250 ng/mL 536–893 nmol/L
    Toxic > 500 ng/mL > 1785 nmol/L
Immunoglobulins, serum
    IgG 700–1600 mg/dL 7–16 g/L
    IgA 70–400 mg/dL 0.7–4.0 g/L
    IgM 40–230 mg/dL 0.4–2.3 g/L
    IgD 0–8 mg/dL 0–80 mg/L
    IgE 3–423 IU/mL 3–423 kIU/L
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), CSF 0.5–6.1 mg/dL 0.5–6.1 g/L
Insulin, plasma (fasting) 2–25 µU/mL 13–174 pmol/L
*Iron, serum
    Male 65–175 µg/dL 11.6–31.3 µmol/L
    Female 50–170 µg/dL 9.0–30.4 µmol/L
Iron binding capacity, serum, total (TIBC) 250–425 µg/dL 44.8–71.6 µmol/L
Iron saturation, serum
    Male 20–50% 0.2–0.5
    Female 15–50% 0.15–0.5
17-Ketosteroids, urine
    Male 10–25 mg/24 h 38–87 µmol/24 h
    Female 6–14 mg/24 h (decrease with age) 21–52 µmol/24 h (decrease with age)
L-Lactate
    Plasma (NaF)
        Venous 4.5–19.8 mg/dL 0.5–2.2 mmol/L
        Arterial 4.5–14.4 mg/dL 0.5–1.6 mmol/L
    Whole blood (Hep), at bed rest
        Venous 8.1–15.3 mg/dL 0.9–1.7 mmol/L
        Arterial < 11.3 mg/dL < 1.3 mmol/L
    Urine, 24 h 496–1982 mg/d 5.5–22 mmol/d
    CSF 10–22 mg/dL 1.1–2.4 mmol/L
*Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    Total (L®P), 37°C, serum
        Newborn 290–775 U/L 4.9–13.2 µkat/L
        Neonate 545–2000 U/L 9.3–34 µkat/L
        Infant 180–430 U/L 3.1–7.3 µkat/L
        Child 110–295 U/L 1.9–5 µkat/L
        Adult 100–190 U/L 1.7–3.2 µkat/L
        > 60 y 110–210 U/L 1.9–3.6 µkat/L
    *Isoenzymes, serum by agarose gel electrophoresis
        Fraction 1 14–26% of total 0.14–0.26 fraction of total
        Fraction 2 29–39% of total 0.29–0.39 fraction of total
        Fraction 3 20–26% of total 0.20–0.26 fraction of total
        Fraction 4 8–16% of total 0.08–0.16 fraction of total
        Fraction 5 6–16% of total 0.06–0.16 fraction of total
*Lactate dehydrogenase, CSF 10% of serum value 0.10 fraction of serum value
LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum or plasma (EDTA)
    Adult Desirable: < 130 mg/dL
Desirable: < 3.37 mmol/L
Borderline: 130–159 mg/dL
Borderline: 3.37–4.12 mmol/L
High risk: ³ 160 mg/dL High risk: ³ 4.13 mmol/L
Lead
    Whole blood (Hep) < 10 µg/dL < 0.48 µmol/L
    Urine, 24 h < 80 µg/d < 0.39 µmol/d
Lecithin-sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio, amniotic fluid 2.0–5.0 indicates probable fetal lung maturity; > 3.5 in diabetics Same
Lidocaine, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); 45 min after bolus dose
    Therapeutic 1.5–6.0 µg/mL 6.4–26 µmol/L
    Toxic
        CNS, cardiovascular depression 6–8 µg/mL 26–34.2 µmol/L
        Seizures, obtundation, decreased cardiac output > 8 µg/mL > 34.2 µmol/L
*Lipase, serum 23–300 U/L (37°C) 0.39–5.1 µkat/L (37°C)
Lithium, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); 12 h after last dose
    Therapeutic 0.6–1.2 mEq/L 0.6–1.2 mmol/L
    Toxic > 2 mEq/L > 2 mmol/L
Lorazepam, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic 50–240 ng/mL 156–746 nmol/L
*Luteinizing hormone (LH), serum or plasma (Hep)
    Male 1.24–7.8 mIU/mL 1.24–7.8 IU/L
    Female
        Follicular phase 1.68–15.0 mIU/mL 1.68–15.0 IU/L
        Mid-cycle peak 21.9–56.6 mIU/mL 21.9–56.6 IU/L
        Luteal phase 0.61–16.3 mIU/mL 0.61–16.3 IU/L
        Postmenopausal 14.2–52.5 mIU/mL 14.2–52.3 IU/L
Magnesium
    Serum 1.3–2.1 mEq/L
0.65–1.07 mmol/L
1.6–2.6 mg/dL 16–26 mg/L
    Urine 6.0–10.0 mEq/24 h 3.0–5.0 mmol/24 h
Mercury
    Whole blood (EDTA) 0.6–59 µg/L < 0.29 µmol/L
    Urine, 24 h < 20 µg/d < 0.1 µmol/d
    Toxic > 150 µg/d > 0.75 µmol/d
Metanephrines, total, urine 0.1–1.6 mg/24 h 0.5–8.1 µmol/24 h
Methemoglobin (MetHb, hemoglobin), whole blood (EDTA, Hep or ACD) 0.06–0.24 g/dL or
9.3–37.2 µmol/L or
0.78 ± 0.37% of total Hb (SD) Mass fraction of total Hb: 0.008 ± 0.0037 (SD)
Methotrexate, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic Variable Variable
    Toxic
        1–2 wk after low dose therapy ³ 0.02 µmol/L Same
        post IV infusion 24 h: ³ 5 µmol/L
24 h: Same
48 h: ³ 0.5 µmol/L
48 h: Same
72 h: ³ 0.05 µmol/L 72 h: Same
Myelin basic protein, CSF < 2.5 ng/mL < 2.5 µg/L
Myoglobin, serum < 85 ng/mL < 85 µg/L
Nortriptyline, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough (³ 12 h after dose)
    Therapeutic 50–150 ng/mL 190–570 nmol/L
    Toxic > 500 ng/mL > 1900 nmol/L
*5'-Nucleotidase, serum 2–17 U/L 0.034–0.29 µkat/L
N-Acetylprocainamide, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 5–30 µg/mL 18–108 µmol/L
    Toxic > 40 µg/mL > 144 µmol/L
Occult blood, feces, random Negative (< 2 mL blood/150 g stool/d) Negative (< 13.3 mL blood/kg stool/d)
    Qualitative, urine, random Negative Negative
Osmolality
    Serum 275–295 mOsm/kg serum water 275–295 mmol/kg serum water
    Urine 50–1200 mOsm/kg water 50–1200 mmol/kg water
    Ratio, urine/serum 1.0–3.0
Same
3.0–4.7 after 12 h fluid restriction
Osmotic fragility of erythrocytes Begins in 0.45–0.39% NaCl
Begins in 77–67 mmol/L NaCl
Complete in 0.33–0.30% NaCl Complete in 56–51 mmol/L NaCl
Oxazepam, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA), therapeutic 0.2–1.4 µg/mL 0.70–4.9 µmol/L
Oxygen, blood
    Capacity 16–24 vol% (varies with hemoglobin) 7.14–10.7 mmol/L (varies with hemoglobin)
    Content
        Arterial 15–23 vol% 6.69–10.3 mmol/L
        Venous 10–16 vol% 4.46–7.14 mmol/L
    Saturation
        Arterial and capillary 95–98% of capacity 0.95–0.98 of capacity
        Venous 60–85% of capacity 0.60–0.85 of capacity
    Tension
        pO2 arterial and capillary 83–108 mm Hg 11.1–14.4 kPa
        Venous 35–45 mm Hg 4.6–6.0 kPa
P50, blood 25–29 mm Hg (adjusted to pH 7.4) 3.33–3.86 kPa
Partial thromboplastin time, activated (APTT) < 35 sec < 35 sec
Pentobarbital, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic
        Hypnotic 1–5 µg/mL 4–22 µmol/L
        Therapeutic coma 20–50 µg/mL 88–221 µmol/L
    Toxic > 10 µg/mL >44 µmol/L
pH
    Blood, arterial 7.35–7.45 7.35–7.45
    Urine 4.6–8.0 (depends on diet) Same
Phenacetin, plasma (EDTA)
    Therapeutic 1–30 µg/mL 6–167 µmol/L
    Toxic 50–250 µg/mL 279–1395 µmol/L
Phenobarbital, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 15–40 µg/mL 65–172 µmol/L
    Toxic
        Slowness, ataxia, nystagmus 35–80 µg/mL 151–345 µmol/L
        Coma with reflexes 65–117 µg/mL 280–504 µmol/L
        Coma without reflexes > 100 µg/mL > 430 µmol/L
Phenolsulfonphthalein excretion (PSP), urine 28–51% in 15 min
0.28–0.51 in 15 min
13–24% in 30 min
0.13–0.24 in 30 min
9–17% in 60 min
0.09–0.17 in 60 min
3–10% in 2 h
0.03–0.10 in 2 h
(After injection of 1 mL PSP intravenously) (After injection of 1 mL PSP intravenously)
Phenylalanine, serum 0.8–1.8 mg/dL 48–109 µmol/L
Phenytoin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 10–20 µg/mL 40–79 µmol/L
    Toxic > 20 µg/mL > 79 µmol/L
*Phosphatase, acid, prostatic, serum RIA < 3.0 ng/mL < 3.0 µg/L
*Phosphatase, alkaline, total, serum 38–126 U/L (37°C) 0.65–2.14 µkat/L
Phosphate, inorganic, serum
    Adults 2.7–4.5 mg/dL 0.87–1.45 mmol/L
    Children 4.5–5.5 mg/dL 1.45–1.78 mmol/L
Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), amniotic fluid
    Fetal lung immaturity Absent Same
    Fetal lung maturity Present Same
Phospholipids, serum 125–275 mg/dL 1.25–2.75 g/L
Phosphorus, urine 0.4–1.3 g/24 h 12.9–42 mmol/24 h
Porphobilinogen, urine
    Qualitative Negative Negative
    Quantitative < 2.0 mg/24 h < 9 µmol/24 h
Porphyrins, urine
    Coproporphyrin 34–230 µg/24 h 52–351 nmol/24 h
    Uroporphyrin 27–52 µg/24 h 32–63 nmol/24 h
Potassium, plasma (Hep)
    Male 3.5–4.5 mEq/L 3.5–4.5 mmol/L
    Female 3.4–4.4 mEq/L 3.4–4.4 mmol/L
Potassium
    Serum
        Premature
            Cord 5.0–10.2 mEq/L 5.0–10.2 mmol/L
            48 h 3.0–6.0 mEq/L 3.0–6.0 mmol/L
        Newborn, cord 5.6–12.0 mEq/L 5.6–12.0 mmol/L
        Newborn 3.7–5.9 mEq/L 3.7–5.9 mmol/L
        Infant 4.1–5.3 mEq/L 4.1–5.3 mmol/L
        Child 3.4–4.7 mEq/L 3.4–4.7 mmol/L
        Adult 3.5–5.1 mEq/L 3.5–5.1 mmol/L
    Urine, 24 h 25–125 mEq/d, varies with diet 25–125 mmol/d; varies with diet
    CSF 70% of plasma level or 2.5–3.2 mEq/L; rises with plasma hyperosmolality 0.70 of plasma level or 2.5–3.2 mmol/L; rises with plasma hyperosmolality
Prealbumin (transthyretin), serum 10–40 mg/dL 100–400 mg/L
Primidone, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 5–12 µg/mL 23–55 µmol/L
    Toxic > 15 µg/mL > 69 µmol/L
Procainamide, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 4–10 µg/mL 17–42 µmol/L
    Toxic (also consider effect of metabolite (NAPA)) > 10–12 µg/mL > 42–51 µmol/L
*Progesterone, serum
    Adult
        Male 13–97 ng/dL 0.4–3.1 nmol/L
        Female
            Follicular phase 15–70 ng/dL 0.5–2.2 nmol/L
            Luteal phase 200–2500 ng/dL 6.4–79.5 nmol/L
            Pregnancy Varies with gestational week
*Prolactin, serum
    Male 2.5–15.0 ng/mL 2.5–15.0 µg/L
    Female 2.5–19.0 ng/mL 2.5–19.0 µg/L
Propoxyphene, plasma (EDTA)
    Therapeutic 0.1–0.4 µg/mL 0.3–1.2 µmol/L
    Toxic > 0.5 µg/mL > 1.5 µmol/L
Propranolol, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 50–100 ng/mL 193–386 nmol/L
*Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), serum
    Male < 4.0 ng/mL < 4.0 µg/L
*Protein, serum
    Total 6.4–8.3 g/dL 64–83 g/L
        Albumin 3.9–5.1 g/dL 39–51 g/L
        Globulin
            a1 0.2–0.4 g/dL 2–4 g/L
            a2 0.4–0.8 g/dL 4–8 g/L
            b 0.5–1.0 g/dL 5–10 g/L
            γ 0.6–1.3 g/dL 6–13 g/L
    Urine
        Qualitative Negative Negative
        Quantitative 50–80 mg/24 h (at rest) Same
    CSF, total 8–32 mg/dL 80–320 mg/dL
Prothrombin consumption > 20 sec > 20 sec
*Prothrombin time (PT) 12–14 sec 12–14 sec
Protoporphyrin, total, WB < 60 µg/dL < 600 µg/L
Pyruvate, blood 0.3–0.9 mg/dL 34–103 µmol/L
Quinidine, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 2–5 µg/mL 6–15 µmol/L
    Toxic > 6 µg/mL > 18 µmol/L
Salicylates, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 150–300 µg/mL 1.09–2.17 mmol/L
    Toxic > 500 µg/mL > 3.62 mmol/L
Sedimentation rate
    Wintrobe
        Male 0–10 mm in 1 h 0–10 mm/h
        Female 0–20 mm in 1 h 0–20 mm/h
    Westergren
        Male (< 50 yr) 0–15 mm in 1 h 0–15 mm/h
        Female (< 50 yr) 0–20 mm in 1 h 0–120 mm/h
Sodium
    Serum or plasma (Hep)
        Premature
            Cord 116–140 mEq/L 116–140 mmol/L
            48 h 128–148 mEq/L 128–148 mmol/L
        Newborn, cord 126–166 mEq/L 126–166 mmol/L
        Newborn 133–146 mEq/L 133–146 mmol/L
        Infant 139–146 mEq/L 139–146 mmol/L
        Child 138–145 mEq/L 138–145 mmol/L
        Adult 136–145 mEq/L 136–145 mmol/L
    Urine, 24 h 40–220 mEq/d (diet dependent) 40–220 mmol/d (diet dependent)
    Sweat
        Normal 10–40 mEq/L 10–40 mmol/L
        Cystic fibrosis 70–190 mEq/L 70–190 mmol/L
Specific gravity, urine 1.002–1.030 1.002–1.030
*Testosterone, serum
    Male 280–1100 ng/dL 0.52–38.17 nmol/L
    Female 15–70 ng/dL 0.52–2.43 nmol/L
        Pregnancy 3–4 × normal 3–4 × normal
        Postmenopausal 8–35 ng/dL 0.28–1.22 nmol/L
Theophylline, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic
        Bronchodilator 8–20 µg/mL 44–111 µmol/L
        Prem. apnea 6–13 µg/mL 33–72 µmol/L
    Toxic > 20 µg/mL > 110 µmol/L
Thiocyanate
    Serum or plasma (EDTA)
        Nonsmoker 1–4 µg/mL 17–69 µmol/L
        Smoker 3–12 µg/mL 52–206 µmol/L
        Therapeutic after nitroprusside infusion 6–29 µg/mL 103–499 µmol/L
    Urine
        Nonsmoker 1–4 mg/d 17–69 µmol/d
        Smoker 7–17 mg/d 120–292 µmol/d
Thiopental, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Hypnotic 1.0–5.0 µg/mL 4.1–20.7 µmol/L
    Coma 30–100 µg/mL 124–413 µmol/L
    Anesthesia 7–130 µg/mL 29–536 µmol/L
    Toxic concentration > 10 µg/mL > 41 µmol/L
*Thryoid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum 0.4–4.2 µU/mL 0.4–4.2 mU/L
Thyroxine (T4) serum 5–12 µg/dL (varies with age, higher in children and pregnant women) 65–155 nmol/L (varies with age, higher in children and pregnant women)
*Thyroxine, free, serum 0.8–2.7 ng/dL 10.3–35 pmol/L
Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), serum 1.2–3.0 mg/dL 12–30 mg/L
Tobramycin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic
        Peak
            Less severe infection 5–8 µg/mL 11–17 µmol/L
            Severe infection 8–10 µg/mL 17–21 µmol/L
        Trough
            Less severe infection < 1 µg/mL < 2 µmol/L
            Moderate infection < 2 µg/mL < 4 µmol/L
            Severe infection < 2–4 µg/mL < 4–9 µmol/L
    Toxic
        Peak > 10–12 µg/mL > 21–26 µmol/L
        Trough > 2– 4 µg/mL > 4–9 µmol/L
Transferrin, serum
    Newborn 130–275 mg/dL 1.30–2.75 g/L
    Adult 212–360 mg/dL 2.12–3.60 g/L
    > 60 yr 190–375 mg/dL 1.9–3.75 g/L
Triglycerides, serum, fasting
    Desirable < 250 mg/dL < 2.83 mmol/L
    Borderline high 250–500 mg/dL 2.83–5.67 mmol/L
    Hypertriglyceridemic > 500 mg/dL > 5.65 mmol/L
*Triiodothyronine, total (T3) serum 45–137 ng/dL 0.69–2.1 nmol/L
*Troponin-I, cardiac, serum undetectable undetectable
Troponin-T, cardiac, serum undetectable undetectable
*Uric acid
    Serum, enzymatic
        Male 4.5–8.0 mg/dL 0.27–0.47 mmol/L
        Female 2.5–6.2 mg/dL 0.15–0.37 mmol/L
        Child 2.0–5.5 mg/dL 0.12–0.32 mmol/L
    Urine 250–750 mg/24 h
(with normal diet)
1.48–4.43 mmol/24 h
(with normal diet)
Urea nitrogen, serum 6–20 mg/dL 2.1–7.1 mmol urea/L
Urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, serum 12:1 to 20:1 48–80 urea/creatinine mole ratio
Urobilinogen, urine 0.1–0.8 Ehrlich unit/2 h
Same
0.5–4.0 mg/24 h Same
Valproic acid, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA); trough
    Therapeutic 50–100 µg/mL 347–693 µmol/L
    Toxic > 100 µg/mL > 693 µmol/L
Vancomycin, serum or plasma (Hep or EDTA)
    Therapeutic
        Peak 20–40 µg/mL 14–28 µmol/L
        Trough 5–10 µg/mL 3–7 µmol/L
    Toxic > 80–100 µg/mL > 55–69 µmol/L
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), urine (4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid) 1.4–6.5 mg/24 h 7–33 µmol/d
Viscosity, serum 1.00–1.24 cP 1.00–1.24 cP
Vitamin A, serum 30–80 µg/dL 1.05–2.8 µmol/L
Vitamin B12, serum 110–800 pg/mL 81–590 pmol/L
Vitamin E, serum
    Normal 5–18 µg/mL 12–42 µmol/L
    Therapeutic 30–50 µg/mL 69.6–116 µmol/L
Zinc, serum 70–120 µg/dL 10.7–18.4 µmol/L


Show-Hong Duh, PhD, DABCC, Department of Pathology,
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Janine Denis Cook, PhD, Department of Medical and Research Technology,
University of Maryland School of Medicine

References:

Reference Intervals. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed., C.A. Burtis and E.R. Ashwood, Ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1998.

Hematologic Values. In Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis. 2nd ed., D.M. Harmening, Ed. Philadelphia, F.A. Davis Co., 1992.

National Cholesterol Education Program: Report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Arch. Intern. Med. 1998; 148:36-69.

Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: Reference Range Values in Clinical Chemistry. Professional services manual. Baltimore, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland Medical System, 1999.

Triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein, and Coronary Heart Disease. National Institute of Health Consensus Statement, NIH Consensus Development Conference, 1992, Volume 10, Number 2.